Endometriosis occurs when the tissue that lines the uterus (endometrium) grows outside of it.

This disease commonly involves the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the tissue lining pelvis.  The problem is that this endometrial-like tissue acts as endometrial tissue would — it thickens, breaks down and bleeds with each menstrual cycle. As this tissue is located in the “wrong place” it is trapped there. It also can lead to the formation of the ovarian cysts or cause pelvic tissues and organs to stick to each other.

Endometriosis can cause pain — sometimes severe — especially during menstrual periods. Fertility problems also may develop. Luckily, effective treatments are available.

Symptoms of endometriosis may include:

  • Pain. This is the most common symptom. Women with endometriosis may have many different kinds of pain. These include:
    • Very painful menstrual cramps.
    • Chronic (long-term) pain in the lower back and pelvis
    • Pain during or after sex. This is usually described as a “deep” pain and is different from pain felt at the entrance to the vagina when penetration begins.
    • Intestinal pain
    • Painful bowel movements or pain when urinating during menstrual periods.
  • Bleeding or spotting between menstrual periods.
  • Infertility
  • Stomach (digestive) problems. These include diarrhea, constipation, bloating, or nausea, especially during menstrual periods.

Risk factors

  • Never giving birth
  • Starting period at an early age
  • Going through menopause at an older age
  • Short menstrual cycles — for instance, less than 27 days
  • Heavy menstrual periods that last longer than seven days
  • Having higher levels of estrogen in your body or greater lifetime exposure to estrogen your body produces
  • Low body mass index
  • One or more relatives (mother, aunt or sister) with endometriosis
  • Any medical condition that prevents the normal passage of menstrual flow out of the body
  • Reproductive tract abnormalities


  • Infertility
  • Ovarian cancer

Endometriosis Treatment Options

Specific treatment for endometriosis will be determined by health care provider based on:

  •  Health and medical history
  • Current symptoms
  • The extent of the disease
  • Tolerance for specific medications, procedures or therapies
  • Expectations for the course of the disease
  • Patient’s desire for pregnancy
Treatment for endometriosis may include:
  • “Watchful waiting” to observe the course of the disease
  • Pain medication: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Hormone therapy
Surgical techniques that may be used to treat endometriosis:
  • Laparoscopy (can be used to help diagnose the endometriosis)
  • Laparotomy
  • Hysterectomy





Olha Tarasenko
MD, Obstetrician-Gynecologist, Fertility Specialist
MD, Ph.D, Gynecologist-endocrinologist, Fertility specialist
MD, PhD. Deputy Medical Director for Obstetrics and Gynecology, Obstetrician-Gynecologist
Tetiana Fakhrutdinova
MD, PhD. Head of Female Consultation, Obstetrician-Gynecologist, Fertility Specialist
MD, Head of the Obstetric Hospital, Obstetrician and Gynecologist of the highest category
MD, Obstetrician-Gynecologist, Ultrasound specialist, Gynecologist and Endocrinologist

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