Endoscopy is a procedure where special tools are used to examine internal organs and blood vessels without body cuts (or with minimal cuts).

Depending on the area of ​​interest, endoscopy is divided into categories:

  • Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is used to examine the esophagus, stomach and duodenum.
  • Colonoscopy allows to examine the large intestine.
  • Flexible rectosigmoscopy is a method for examining the rectum and sigmoid colon. The examination is similar to colonoscopy, the difference is that the device is inserted into the anus no deeper than 25-30 cm.
  • Laparoscopy is used to examine the abdominal and pelvic areas. Devices are introduced through small incisions of the body near the area under examination.

In addition to the methods listed above, there are: cystoscopy, bronchoscopy, hysteroscopy, laryngoscopy and others.

New advances in endoscopy, such as virtual endoscopy, capsular endoscopy, make this procedure more comfortable for the patient and informative for the doctor.

Colonoscopy is a procedure used to detect changes in the colon.

During colonoscopy, a flexible tube with a tiny camera at the end is inserted into the intestines. It allows to examine the inner surface of the entire colon.

If necessary, tissue sampling (biopsy) and removal of polyps can be performed.

A doctor may recommend a colonoscopy:

  • in order to detect the causes of abdominal pain, intestinal bleeding, constipation, diarrhea and other problems;
  • for preventive examination; if you are over 40 years old, you should discuss with your doctor the need for screening colonoscopy;
  • with a medical purpose; the timely detection and removal of polyps is the best way to reduce the risk of colon cancer.

Performing the procedure in a condition of medication sleep will help to avoid discomfort.

Flexible rectosigmoscopy is a study of the rectum and left part of the large intestine.

Before the study, it is necessary to cleanse the intestines with an enema. The procedure usually takes about 10 minutes and is performed with or without sedation.

If necessary, tissue sampling (biopsy) and removal of polyps can be performed.

Unlike colonoscopy, flexible rectosigmoscopy does not allow the entire intestine to be examined. However, complete (and more complex) preparation is not required.

In some situations, rectosigmoscopy may be more appropriate than colonoscopy.

EGD (esophagogastroduodenoscopy, upper endoscopy) is a procedure used to visually inspect the upper digestive system. A special flexible tube with a tiny camera at the end is used.

EGD is used to diagnose and treat diseases affecting the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum.

Your doctor may recommend endoscopy when it’s necessary to:

  • determine the cause of symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, difficult swallowing, gastrointestinal bleeding;
  • perform tissue sampling (biopsy) to check for conditions such as anemia, inflammation and tumors of the digestive system;
  • perform an operation to cauterize a bleeding vessel, widen a narrowed esophagus, remove a polyp or a foreign object.

Sometimes other procedures are performed during endoscopy: determining the acidity of the gastric juice, testing for Helicobacter pylori, staining of the mucous membrane of the digestive system (chromoscopy). Video research can be recorded on the media.

Endoscopy is a very safe procedure. Possible complications are extremely rare.

It is possible to carry out endoscopy in a condition of medical sleep to avoid unpleasant sensations during the study.

Endoscopy takes several minutes and is completely painless. You can find out the result immediately after the procedure.

Patients’ safety is above all

To ensure that endoscopic examination is safe for our patients, we adhere to strict standards for testing and processing equipment before each procedure.

Before an endoscopic examination, the doctor will:

1. Perform mechanical cleaning of the device

The working channels and external parts of the endoscope are thoroughly washed with special solutions containing enzymes, and cleaned with special cleaners. Studies have shown that only these steps can eliminate potentially dangerous viruses and other microorganisms from the endoscope.

2. Test the device for leaks

The endoscope is checked for leaks in the internal working channels. This not only ensures maximum performance of the device, but also allows you to instantly detect internal defects, which may be a potential source of infection inside the device.

Despite sophisticated electronics, the entire endoscope can be completely immersed in liquid to conduct leak testing.

3. Disinfect the endoscope using special solutions

The endoscope is immersed in a disinfectant solution in order to destroy the infectious agents, including the AIDS virus, hepatitis viruses and other potentially harmful bacteria.

4. Rinse and dry the appliance

After exposure to a chemical disinfectant, the channels of the endoscope are washed with sterile water, then with alcohol, and then dried in air to remove any moisture. The endoscope is stored in a special cabinet, which allows to maintain its sterility.

The multidisciplinary diagnostic base of the ADONIS group of hospitals allows to identify the causes of the disease at an early stage, make a diagnosis and conduct effective treatment.


MD, Ph.D, Gynecologist-endocrinologist, Fertility specialist
MD, PhD, Head of the Surgical Diagnostic Center

What do other patients think?

Take care of your health today

    I agree with privacy policy

    Take care of your health today

      I agree with privacy policy

      Thank you for your message. It has been sent.

      GET PDF

        I agree with privacy policy

        The latest news and great secret offers for you here!

        We use cookies and other tools to enhance your experience on our website and to analyze our web traffic. For more information about these cookies and the data collected, please refer to our Privacy Policy.