Infectious diseases develop as a result of penetration of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi and other pathogens into the organism. The most common type of infectious disease is ARVI, which many people get sick almost every year. These diseases, as a rule, are easily treatable and do not cause complications, while other infections can be very difficult, lead to irreversible disorders of the internal organs functioning and even death.
Infectious diseases can be spread by airborne droplets, touch, contact with blood, insect and animal bites. Many infections that used to pose a serious threat to life and led to large-scale epidemics can now be prevented by vaccination. It reduces the risk of infection by almost 90-100%. However, many diseases are not vaccinated, and there is no reliable protection against them.
Symptoms of diseases
There are a lot of infectious diseases, so their symptoms vary significantly.
Many diseases are characterized by symptoms of general intoxication:
- Deterioration in general well-being
- Increased body temperature
- Dizziness, headache
- Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and others
Specific symptoms differ depending on the organs and body systems affected.
Symptoms of infectious diseases of the respiratory tract:
- Runny nose, lacrimation
- Cough, sneezing
- Sore throat and chest pain
- Shortness of breath, difficult breathing
These symptoms can develop with influenza, diphtheria, infectious mononucleosis and other diseases of the respiratory system. To make a correct diagnosis, the doctor has to examine the patient, study his symptoms and, if necessary, conduct laboratory and other studies.
Symptoms of intestinal infections:
- Nausea and vomiting
- Diarrhea or constipation
- Abdominal pain
These symptoms can occur in acute intestinal infections, salmonellosis, cholera and other diseases, including non-infectious ones.
Skin diseases can cause:
- Skin rashes
- Skin redness
In particular, these symptoms can occur with measles, rubella and chickenpox.
Types of infectious diseases
There are many classifications of infectious diseases. They are divided according to the type of infection, method of spread, damage to internal organs and other characteristics.
Depending on the type of pathogen, infections are divided into:
- Parasitic and others
Protocols for treating infectious diseases vary considerably. Therefore, a thorough diagnosis is very important.
The list of the most common infectious diseases includes:
ARVI – an acute respiratory viral infection that develops when infected with a pneumotropic virus. It affects the respiratory system. This group of diseases includes colds, flu, bronchiolitis and other infections.
Measles – an acute viral disease that causes inflammation of the mucous organs of the respiratory system and eyes, skin rashes, a rise in temperature to maximum values and general intoxication of the body.
Rubella – a viral disease that manifests itself as a rash on the face and neck, which gradually spreads to the entire body, and a slight increase in temperature. The danger of rubella is the development of serious complications. The disease is most dangerous for pregnant women.
Epidemic parotitis (mumps) – a viral disease that causes inflammation of the salivary glands in the parotid area. It is manifested by swelling of the salivary glands and an increase in temperature to 38-38.5° Celsius. It can spread to other organs and cause the development of meningitis, pancreatitis, myocarditis and other diseases. With complications, it can provoke deafness, damage to the nervous system and other disorders.
Diphtheria – a bacterial disease that affects the oropharynx, larynx and other organs of the respiratory system. It leads to severe intoxication of the body due to the production of toxins by the diphtheria bacillus and can cause the development of croup – the formation of a film on the mucous membranes and swelling of the airways, which leads to their blockage.
Chickenpox – a viral disease that is accompanied by rashes on the body, fever and other symptoms. In children, as a rule, it passes in a mild form, but it is dangerous with the development of complications – pneumonia, neuralgia, meningitis, hepatitis and other disorders.
Scarlet fever – a disease caused by streptococcus, which is manifested by a small rash, fever, tonsillitis and general intoxication of the body.
Whooping cough – a bacterial infection of the respiratory tract with severe coughing. It can cause life-threatening complications – disorder of respiratory rhythm and cerebral circulation.
Helminthiasis – a parasitic disease caused by parasitic worms. They can affect all tissues and organs of the human body.
Hepatitis – an inflammatory liver disease caused by viral infections.
Meningitis – an inflammatory disease of the membranes of the brain and spinal cord, which manifests itself as headache, hardening of the muscles in the occipital region, a change in the state of consciousness, increased sensitivity to sound and light, high temperature.
HIV – a viral disease of the immune system.
Some diseases most often happen at a young age. Chickenpox, measles, rubella, mumps, scarlet fever and whooping cough are considered infectious diseases of children. As a rule, if a person has had one of these diseases, he/she develops strong immunity and does not become infected again. In adulthood, these diseases proceed in a more complex form, so the patient needs careful medical monitoring.
Diagnostics of infectious diseases
Some diseases, for example, measles and chickenpox, have pronounced specific symptoms that allow to establish an immediate diagnosis. But in most cases, laboratory and instrumental studies are used to diagnose infectious diseases. The infectious disease doctor compares the test results with the symptoms of the disease and determines the diagnosis.
Methods of treatment of infectious diseases
The principles of treatment of infectious diseases differ depending on the type of infection and the severity of the disease. For bacterial infections, antibiotics are used, fungal – antimycotic drugs, helminthic – antiparasitic drugs. Also, especially in viral diseases, symptomatic treatment is used to lower the temperature and eliminate other symptoms of the disease.
The prevention of complications is of great importance in the treatment of infectious diseases. Many infections are dangerous precisely because of their complications, which can cause irreversible damage, disability and even death.
Treatment of infectious diseases can take place at home or in an infectious diseases hospital. The patient can be hospitalized with a severe deterioration in health and a threat to life.
Prevention of infections
The most effective method of preventing infectious diseases is timely vaccination. Vaccinations help the body to develop immunity to pathogenic microorganisms and reduce the risk of infection by up to 90-100%. In rare cases, a person can get sick after vaccination, but the disease is milder and does not cause complications.
Also, for the prevention of infectious diseases, it is recommended to strengthen your immunity, monitor hygiene, and do not attend public events during epidemics.